Retinitis Pigmentosa (Generalized Rod–Cone Dystrophies) *The typical features include: -Waxy pallor of the optic nerve. -Narrowing of retinal arterioles -A generalized mottling and moth-eaten pattern to the retinal pigment epithelium(RPE), often with bony spicule pattern of intraretinal pigment located in the midperiphery. *A variety of clinical manifestations include: – Cystoid macular edema, epiretinal membrane formation, optic nerve drusen. -A Coats’-like ... Read More »
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Diabetic macular oedema is the most common cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients, particul...
Diabetic Retinopathy Microaneurysms Microaneurysms are localized out-pouchings, mainly saccular, of ...
Venous beading (arrows) in a case of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Source: Ophthalmology Notes...
Stargardt Disease (Stargardt Macular Dystrophy, Fundus Flavimaculatus) -Polymorphic sheen in the mac...
Exudative retinal detachments produce RPE changes charcterised by loss of RPE cells causing small ar...
Non-exudative (Dry) Age-related Macular Degeneration ( AMD ) -Variable degrees of medium to larger drusen. -Drusen are the hallmark of non-exudative AMD. -When well-delineated and associated with choriocapillaris atrophy,is termed geographic atrophy. -Alterations of the retinal pigment epithelium(RPE), including RPE hyperplasia and atrophy. -Large drusen and focal hyperpigmentation of the RPE are nonexudative features which represent an increased risk of ... Read More »
Albinism, Ocular, Type I (Nettleship–Falls-Type Albinism) -Hypopigmented fundus characteristics of the disorder. -There is enhanced visualization of the choroidal circulation through the depigmented pigment epithelial layer. -Other findings include a hypopigmented fundus with easily visible choroidal vessels, nystagmus, visual impairment, foveal hypoplasia, and iris transillumination defects. -X-linked disorder where affected males typically manifest abnormal melanin production limited to the eye. Source: ... Read More »
Multifocal choroiditis -Whitish lesions in theacute phases and the more hyperpigmented, well-defi ned lesions in the healed stage. -Sometimes they are associated with cells in the posterior vitreous or even an exudative detachment. -Acute choroidal neovascularization or evidence of previous fibrovascular scarring may be seen in some cases. -Optic disc swelling is an important feature of multifocal choroiditis, which distinguishes it from ... Read More »
Best Disease (Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy) -Unifocal lesion in the central macula. -Accumulation of lipofuscin in the subsensory retinal space,there may be a pseudohypopyon appearance(“pseudohypopyon” stage). -There is may be a zone of atrophy of the pigment epithelium (atrophic stage). -Choroidal neovascularization and hemorrhagic detachment of the macula may occur at each stage. -Abnormal electrooculographic (EOG) findings are universally present in ... Read More »
Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) -Dragging of the retinal vasculature from the disc. -There is may be fibrosis and exudation with deposits of lipid into the macula; as well as localized detachment of the retina. -F.A(helpful in making a diagnosis):Peculiar perifoveal capillaries which appear to have blunted endings rather than a network of communicating capillaries. -It is a retinal disorder linked to mutation ... Read More »
Polycythemia Vera -Widespread preretinal, intraretinal,and even some subretinal hemorrhages. -Disc edema and microaneurysms are visible on the fluorescein angiogram. -Extensive hyperviscosity from polycythemia vera which predispose to retinal vascular occlusive disease in the fundus. Source: Ophthalmology Atlas(Photos of cases) Polycythemia Vera Read More »
Chronic Systemic Hypertension with Retinopathy Hypertensive Retinopathy (Case of chronic systemic hypertension with abnormalities of the arteriolar vasculature) -Focal areas of sheathing, vessel caliber irregularities, arterial-venous crossing defects, and a few hemorrhages. -Plaques within the walls of the superotemporal arteriole. -Zone of pallor of the nerve head inferotemporally from ischemic disease and an erythematous capillary change at the superior temporal ... Read More »
Hypertensive Retinopathy -Multiple cotton-wool spots,intraretinal hemorrhage, and macular edema. -Visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. -Blood pressure of 210/160 mmHg. -Showed improvement after his blood pressure was lowered. -Malignant systemic hypertension may affect the retinal as well as the choroidal circulation and the optic nerve. Source: Ophthalmology Atlas(Photos of cases) Hypertensive Retinopathy Read More »
Eales’ Disease (Idiopathic Peripheral Vascular Occlusive Disease) -Affects the peripheral retinal vasculature. -Leading to retinal non-perfusion or ischemia, preretinal neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage. -There may be perivasculitis, phlebitis, dilated aneurysmal changes, shunt vessels, and even macular edema. -Capillary non-perfusion and retinal neovascularization demonstrated on the fl uorescein angiogram. Source: Ophthalmology Atlas(Photos of cases) Eales’ Disease (Idiopathic Peripheral Vascular Occlusive Disease) Read More »