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Retina Atlas and Photos of cases.Discussion of Diagnosis and Best management.

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ( AION )

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ( AION )

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ( AION ) Infarction of optic nerve head just posterior to lamina cribrosa due to inadequate perfusion by posterior ciliary arteries; results in acute visual loss. 2 forms: arteritic (giant cell arteritis); nonarteritic (ischemic). Findings:decreased color vision and acuity, positive RAPD, VF loss (altitudinal or arcuate defects most common, central scotomas also occur), unilateral optic disc ... Read More »

Optic Neuritis

Optic Neuritis

Optic Neuritis Inflammation of optic nerve; idiopathic or associated with systemic disease; most common optic neuropathy in people <45 years old; female preponderance. Findings: acute unilateral visual loss (can evolve over 1st week, then spontaneous improvement over weeks [70% regain 20/20]), ocular pain exacerbated by eye movements, decreased color vision and contrast sensitivity, positive RAPD, VF defect (50% diffuse, 20% ... Read More »

Papilledema

Papilledema

Papilledema Disc edema due to increased intracranial pressure. Grades: Grade I : papilledema is characterized by a C-shaped halo with a temporal gap. Grade II : papilledema, the halo becomes circumferential. Grade III : papilledema is characterized by loss of major vessels as they leave the disc (arrow). Grade IV : papilledema is characterized by loss of major vessels on ... Read More »

Optic Disc Swelling

Optic Disc Swelling

Optic Disc Swelling Optic disc edema is seen as blurring of the disc margins. Nerve fibers anterior to lamina cribrosa swell due to obstruction of axoplasmic flow at level of lamina choroidalis or lamina scleralis Orthograde transport (ganglion cells to LGB): slow component = 2mm/day; fast component = 500mm/day Retrograde transport (LGB to ganglion cells) Mechanism: ischemia, inflammation, increased intracranial ... Read More »

Synchisis Scintillans (Cholesterol Bulbi)

Synchisis Scintillans (Cholesterol Bulbi)

Synchisis Scintillans (Cholesterol Bulbi) Cholesterol crystals derived from old vitreous hemorrhage; with PVD crystals settle inferiorly .Rare, unilateral Occurs after blunt or penetrating trauma in blind eyes Crystals sink to bottom of globe because no fixed vitreous framework Source:  Ophthalmology Atlas(Photos of cases) Synchisis Scintillans (Cholesterol Bulbi) Read More »

Behcet’s Disease

Behcet’s Disease

Behcet’s Disease Chronic recurrent multisystem condition characterized by relapsing inflammation and occlusive vasculitis Triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and inflammatory eye disease Diagnosis: Clinical:  –Major criteria 1. Oral aphthous ulcers (round, discrete borders; heal without scarring) 2. Genital ulcers 3. Skin lesions (erythema nodosum) 4. Ocular disease (75%): recurrent, explosive inflammatory episodes with active episodes lasting 2–4 weeks Uveitis ... Read More »

Asteroid Hyalosis

Asteroid Hyalosis

Asteroid Hyalosis Refractile particles (calcium soaps) suspended in vitreous More common in older patients and those with diabetes; 25% bilateral Rarely affects vision, but may prevent visualization of posterior pole, use FA to look for abnormalities in these patients Source:  Ophthalmology Atlas(Photos of cases) Asteroid Hyalosis Read More »

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy CSR (Inkblot Leak)

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy CSR (Inkblot Leak)

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy CSR (Inkblot Leak) -Pinpoint area of hyperfluorescence on the fluorescein angiogram that gradually expands in a localized ovoid fashion. -There is no ascent of the fl uid in the subneurosensory retinal space. -This leak usually represents a slow diffusion of the dye through an incomplete or healing defect in the RPE. Source:  Ophthalmology Atlas(Photos of cases) Central ... Read More »

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy CSR (Mushroom or Umbrella Leak)

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy CSR (Mushroom or Umbrella Leak)

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy CSR (Mushroom or Umbrella Leak) -An idiopathic disorder involving a focal or multifocal leak at the level of theretinal pigment epithelium (RPE), usually in conjunction with a serous pigment epithelial detachment. -The leaks ascend in the subneurosensory retinal space until they reach the limits of the neurosensory detachments and then decussate temporally and nasally to form a ... Read More »

Stargardt Disease (Stargardt Macular Dystrophy, Fundus Flavimaculatus)

Stargardt Disease (Stargardt Macular Dystrophy, Fundus Flavimaculatus)

Stargardt Disease (Stargardt Macular Dystrophy, Fundus Flavimaculatus) -Polymorphic sheen in the macula which is generally ovoid in appearance,surrounding the fovea. -F.A:* in the early stages of the disease will show a so-called “dark choroid” corresponding to the paramacular region and peripheral fundus, where there is accumulation of lipofuscin in the pigment epithelium which blocks choroidal fluorescence. *A hyperfluorescence is seen ... Read More »

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