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Monthly Archives: July 2014

Non-rhegmatogenous (Exudative) Retinal Detachment

Non-rhegmatogenous (Exudative) Retinal Detachment

Non-rhegmatogenous (Exudative) Retinal Detachment  Key Facts  • Elevation of retina from accumulation of fluid, exudate, or blood in the subretinal space in the absence of retinal break or traction • The pathophysiology includes: • breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier (e.g. central serous retinopathy, Harada disease) • an increase in fluid flow into the subretinal space (e.g. choroidal tumors, malignant hypertension) ... Read More »

Choroideremia

Choroideremia

Choroideremia  Key Facts  • Bilateral • X-linked recessive • Most common hereditary choroidal dystrophy • Occurs in first and second decades • Nyctalopia Clinical Findings  • Early in the disease course, retinal findings in the midperiphery can have a salt and pepper appearance or be similar to early retinitis pigmentosa with bone spicule pigmentation • Choroidal atrophy starts at the ... Read More »

Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shaken Baby Syndrome  Key Facts • Retinal findings that occur following violent shaking of an infant • Clinical findings are usually bilateral Clinical Findings • Diffuse intraretinal hemorrhage • Subretinal hemorrhage • Vitreous or subhyaloid hemorrhage • Optic disc swelling • Cotton wool spots • Venous engorgement • Chorioretinal atrophy (chronic) Ancillary Testing • Ultrasound when vitreous hemorrhage • Consultation ... Read More »

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ( AION )

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ( AION )

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ( AION ) Infarction of optic nerve head just posterior to lamina cribrosa due to inadequate perfusion by posterior ciliary arteries; results in acute visual loss. 2 forms: arteritic (giant cell arteritis); nonarteritic (ischemic). Findings:decreased color vision and acuity, positive RAPD, VF loss (altitudinal or arcuate defects most common, central scotomas also occur), unilateral optic disc ... Read More »

Optic Neuritis

Optic Neuritis

Optic Neuritis Inflammation of optic nerve; idiopathic or associated with systemic disease; most common optic neuropathy in people <45 years old; female preponderance. Findings: acute unilateral visual loss (can evolve over 1st week, then spontaneous improvement over weeks [70% regain 20/20]), ocular pain exacerbated by eye movements, decreased color vision and contrast sensitivity, positive RAPD, VF defect (50% diffuse, 20% ... Read More »

Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant)

Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant)

Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) Allergan has received approval from the FDA for Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) 0.7 mg as a treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) in adult patients who are pseudophakic or who are scheduled for cataract surgery. Ozurdex is a sustained-release biodegradable steroid implant that has shown long-term efficacy without the need for monthly injections, according to a ... Read More »

Papilledema

Papilledema

Papilledema Disc edema due to increased intracranial pressure. Grades: Grade I : papilledema is characterized by a C-shaped halo with a temporal gap. Grade II : papilledema, the halo becomes circumferential. Grade III : papilledema is characterized by loss of major vessels as they leave the disc (arrow). Grade IV : papilledema is characterized by loss of major vessels on ... Read More »

Optic Disc Swelling

Optic Disc Swelling

Optic Disc Swelling Optic disc edema is seen as blurring of the disc margins. Nerve fibers anterior to lamina cribrosa swell due to obstruction of axoplasmic flow at level of lamina choroidalis or lamina scleralis Orthograde transport (ganglion cells to LGB): slow component = 2mm/day; fast component = 500mm/day Retrograde transport (LGB to ganglion cells) Mechanism: ischemia, inflammation, increased intracranial ... Read More »

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